The boundary between these two groups has been disputed. He did not get up right away, some of the squaws seeing what happed (sic) let out a tremendous shriek, and the whole bunch came a- running, and were thunder-struck to see a little white 'squaw' had done to one of their proudest warrious." (Hufford, 1947). He states, "The Indians have a great de- sire to hold this country as it is fine hunting ground and in the heart of Indian country ....
4 Artifact Assemblages from the Pahranagat, Lincoln County, Nevada . CHAPTER II: ETHNOGRAPHIC OVERVIEW The Winnemucca District was occupied in the late prehistoric period by two distinct groups, the Northern Paiutes (also known as the Paviotso) and the Western Shoshone who lived in the extreme eastern portion of the District. one buck slipped around to the back door went in and was rolling out a barrel of corn beef when he was discovered by Mrs. This aroused her indig- nation and the ire of her Irish, seizing a heavy hoe she hit the Shoshone gentleman on the head, knocking him down. Haviland reflects the settlers' point of view that their productive use of the land was better than the "savages'" traditional use of it.
Plants and animals began the long retreat northward to higher elevations and man witnessed the demise of the Pleistocene megafauna. Although some Indians, most notably Chief Winnemucca, were friendly toward whites, Indian-white relations were marked by hostility during the 1860s.
Herds of camels, horses and mammoths grazed the steppes and fertile marshes . P.) lakes shrank, rivers ceased to flow, and springs began to dry. In the Winnemucca District military posts were established at Fort Winfield Scott, Fort Mc Dermitt, and Willow Point Camp in Paradise Valley, in the Quinn River Valley, Camp Overend south of Golconda, Camp Mc Garry and Camp Mc Garry Outpost at Summit Lake and Soldiers Meadows, Camp Mc Gee at Granite Creek near Gerlach, and Dun Glen in the East Range (Ruhlen 1964; Paher 1970).
A trend toward aridity prevailed for the next few thousand years . In May of 1860 hostilities climaxed just west of the Winnemucca District at Pyramid Lake.
Archaeological Studies in the Cortez Mining District, 1981 . Climate The weather for the Winnemucca District may be classified as dry continental. These materials are listed, but not described in his report (Loud and Harrington 190-151). During the interval between field work and preparation of the final report, knowledge of archeology of the Humboldt Sink had grown considerably. Some worked as shepherds, buckaroos or farm hands on local ranches while others congregated around settlements and military forts where they subsisted partially on handouts and government rations (Layton 1977; Hopkins 1883) .
BL NE BLM LIBRARY 88000265 D MANAGEMENT PREHISTORY and HISTORY of t\)e WINNEMUCCA DISTRICT A Cultural Resources Literature Overview REGINA C. A few families roamed together moving through a seasonal round. 25 More substantial excavations were made at NV-Pe-67, another of the Humboldt Lake-bed sites in 19. Reservations Establishment of reservations during the 1870s and 80s was effective in removing the majority of Indians from the public eye.
1 Studies at Adams -Mc Gill Reservoir: Exercises in Applying Small Project Data to Archaeological Research . The food resources in the District area are scarce and the population density was extremely low. In 1968 Heizer and Clewlow published an analysis of over 1,800 projectile points from this site. The Indians, led by Sho- shone Mike Daggett, were tracked across northwestern Nevada by a posse, and on February 26, 1911, were all killed or captured on the Rabbit Creek Fork of Kelley Creek north of Golconda (Mack 1968; Hyde 1973).
Short term reversals of this trend probably occured shortly before 10,000 and 8,000 B. By 7,500 radiocarbon years ago conditions were much like the present. An Indian chief named Numaga attempted to convince the gathering of the inevitable futility of commencing warfare with the whites.
As the lakes grew even smaller and spring discharged decreased with the dwindling supply of pluvial age ground water, both plants and aminals continued to adjust their ranges. In April Paiutes from surrounding areas congregated at Pyramid Lake for the purpose of determining the best strategy for dealing with the influx of white settlers.