Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating

These Qai fans extend to elevations of about -46 meters (150 feet below sea level) and have not been transgressed by Lake Manly, suggesting that MIS 4 or MIS 2 lakes were rather shallow in Death Valley, perhaps because they lacked inflow from surface runoff of the Sierra Nevada drainages through Panamint Valley and over Wingate Wash.A remnant of ancient lake shoreline deposits that once extended across the Hanaupah Canyon fan constrains the timing and extent of the last deep cycle of Pleistocene Lake Manly.Single or multiple nuclides can be measured in a single rock surface to obtain erosion rates on boulder and bedrock surfaces, fluvial incision rates, denudation rates of individual landforms or entire drainage basins, burial histories of rock surfaces and sediment, scarp retreat, fault slip rates, paleoseismology, and paleoaltimetry.Ages of climatic variations recorded by moraine and alluvium sediments are being directly determined.Without an intermediate-age unit, such as MIS 4 lake deposits, we can neither disprove nor prove that Qai was deposited in two discrete intervals or over a longer range of time.

The capability to routinely measure low concentrations of stable and radioactive cosmogenic nuclides has led to new methods for addressing long-standing geologic questions and has provided insights into rates and styles of surficial processes.Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating of moraine boulders and alluvial fan sediments define the timing of five glacial advances over at least the last five glacial cycles in the Ladakh Range of the Transhimalaya.The glacial stages that have been identified are: the Indus Valley glacial stage, dated at older than 430 ka; the Leh glacial stage occurring in the penultimate glacial cycle or older; the Karglacial stage, occurring during the early part of the last glacial cycle; the Bazgo glacial stage, at its maximum during the middle of the last glacial cycle; and the early Holocene Khalling glacial stage.The different physical and chemical properties of the six most widely used nuclides: years.The terrestrial in situ cosmogenic nuclide method is beginning to revolutionize the manner in which we study landscape evolution.

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